Water Buffalo (Bubalus arnee )Bovidae
Kendirian, Lighthouse, Padang Golf Penipahan Atas, Danau Sei Leman
Endangered (IUCN 3.1)
Wild water buffalo commonly form cohesive herds varying from 10 to 20 individuals, although herds of up to 100 individuals have been observed. In Australia, feral water buffalo form herds of up to 30 individuals consisting of adult females, their offspring, and sub-adult females.
Water buffalo are both diurnal and nocturnal. They are more sensitive to heat than most bovids because they have fewer sweat glands. Thus, water buffalo are known for wallowing in mud. Wallowing in mud helps to cool the animal because water in mud evaporates more slowly than just water alone, thus extending the period of cooling. Wallowing also serves to cake the animal with mud, which protects it from biting insects.
Water buffalo often graze in the morning and evening. During hotter parts of the day, they rest in patches of dense cover, wallow in mud holes, or completely submerge themselves in water with only their nostrils and eyes exposed. When deprived of wallowing grounds, water buffalo often seek shade to alleviate the stress of.
Bhutan; Cambodia; India; Myanmar; Nepal; Thailand
Possibly extinct: Viet Nam
Regionally extinct: Bangladesh; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Sri Lanka